How to start vertical farming: a complete guide to build a vertical farming business

Hey there! It’s great to hear that you’re interested in starting a vertical farm! Vertical farming has emerged as a popular and sustainable solution for producing fresh and healthy food in urban areas. 

If you’re interested in starting your own vertical farm business but don’t know where to begin, you’re in the right place. In this guide on how to start a vertical farming business, we’ll take you through the essential steps for setting up your vertical farm. From understanding the basics of vertical farming to selecting the right crops and equipment, we’ve got you covered. Let’s get started!

Steps before set up a vertical farm

1: Determine your goals

The first step is to determine your goals and budget. What do you want to achieve with your vertical farm? Are you looking to start a commercial operation or a small-scale farm for personal use?  

2: Research supply and demand

In case you want to use vertical farming for commercial purposes, you should know if there is a demand in your area, and what kind of vegetables are most in demand. Look at the demographics of your target market, such as income levels and dietary preferences. Also, look at the competition in the market to see if there is room for your vertical farm.

Steps to research the supply and demand of vertical farming in your area

1. Identify the market

Before researching the supply and demand of vertical farming, you need to identify your target market. Determine who your customers will be, what their needs are, and what products they are looking for. For example, are you targeting restaurants, grocery stores, or direct-to-consumer sales? Once you have identified your target market, you can start researching the supply and demand of vertical farming products for those specific places.

2. Research existing vertical farms in your area

Conduct research on existing vertical farms in your area to get a sense of the market saturation and competition. Look at the variety of crops grown, the prices, and the demand for these products. Visit local farmer’s markets and grocery stores to see what produce is being sold, and ask the sellers where they source their products.

3. Analyze consumer trends

Analyze consumer trends in your area to determine the demand for specific types of produce. Conduct surveys or focus groups to gain insights into what products consumers are looking for and how much they are willing to pay. This information will help you determine what crops to grow and at what price points.

3: Regulations and permits


Like any agricultural activity, vertical farming is subject to regulations and permits. These rules are in place to ensure that the practice is safe and sustainable, and that it does not pose a threat to public health or the environment. 

Here are some of the regulations and permits that may be required in case you want to start a vertical farming company:

  • Zoning and land use regulations: Before starting a vertical farm, it is important to check local zoning and land use regulations. In some areas, vertical farming may be classified as a commercial or industrial activity, which may have specific zoning requirements. It may also be necessary to obtain a building permit to construct a vertical farming facility.
  • Environmental regulations: Vertical farming facilities may be subject to environmental regulations, such as air and water quality standards. It is important to ensure that the facility does not emit pollutants that could harm human health or the environment.
  • Food safety regulations: Vertical farms that produce food for human consumption are subject to food safety regulations. These regulations are designed to ensure that the food is safe for consumers to eat and free from harmful contaminants.
  • Energy regulations: Vertical farming facilities may consume a significant amount of energy to power lighting, heating, and cooling systems. It is important to comply with energy regulations and to explore ways to reduce energy consumption, such as using renewable energy sources.
  • Occupational safety regulations: Vertical farming facilities may pose risks to workers, such as exposure to chemicals or falls from heights. It is important to comply with occupational safety regulations to ensure that workers are safe on the job.

In addition to these regulations, it may be necessary to obtain permits or licenses from local, state, or federal agencies. These may include permits for water usage, waste disposal, or pesticide use.

4: Choose a location

The location of your vertical farm is crucial to its success. Ideally, you want a space that is well-ventilated, with access to natural light and utilities like electricity and water. Some options are based on an indoor vertical farm style, as vacant warehouses o disused buildings, without ruling out other options as even rooftops. Keep in mind that the location you choose will have an impact on the type of crops you can grow and the equipment you will need.

Here are some tips for choosing a suitable location:

  • Consider the space: Vertical farming requires ample space, both horizontally and vertically, for growing crops. The location you choose should have enough room to accommodate your vertical farming setup, which typically consists of tall shelves, trays, and hydroponic systems. It’s also important to ensure that the space has proper ventilation and air conditioning to maintain a controlled environment for the crops.
  • Accessibility: Choose a location that is easy to access for you, your staff, and customers. You’ll need to transport equipment, supplies, and harvested crops regularly, so a location with easy access to major transportation routes, such as highways or ports, is ideal. This will make it easier to transport your produce to markets, restaurants, or other retail locations.
  • Light and temperature: One of the advantages of indoor vertical farming is that you have complete control over the lighting and temperature of the growing environment. Choose a location that can be easily outfitted with artificial lighting. Temperature control is also important, as crops typically thrive in temperatures between 18°C and 24°C (65°F and 75°F).
  • Water and power: Vertical farming systems require a reliable supply of water and electricity. Make sure the location you choose has access to both, or that you can easily install these systems. Water quality is also important, as plants are sensitive to impurities or imbalances in pH levels.

5: Choose your crops

The next step is to choose the crops you want to grow. When it comes to choosing crops for vertical farming, there are a few key factors to consider. First and foremost, you need to select plants that thrive in an indoor environment and are well-suited to growing in a soilless medium such as hydroponics or aeroponics.

Here are some essential tips to help you choose the best crops for your vertical farm:

  • Consider your available space: The amount of available space will determine the types of crops you can grow in your vertical farm. Smaller plants like herbs and leafy greens are suitable for smaller vertical farming setups, while larger crops such as tomatoes and strawberries will require more space.
  • Choose fast-growing crops: Since space is limited in a vertical farm, it’s essential to choose crops that have a short growth cycle. Crops like lettuce, spinach, and herbs are ideal because they have a shorter growth cycle compared to other crops.
  • Pick crops that grow well in hydroponic systems: Vertical farms typically use hydroponic systems, which require plants to grow without soil. Select crops that thrive in this type of system, like lettuce, spinach, and strawberries.
  • Opt for crops that have high yields: Since vertical farming allows for maximum use of available space, choose crops that produce a high yield per square meter/foot. Plants like tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers are good options because they produce a lot of fruits or vegetables per plant.
  • Consider light requirements: Light is essential for plant growth, so it’s crucial to choose crops that thrive in the available light conditions. Crops like lettuce, herbs, and leafy greens require less light, while fruits and vegetables need more light to grow correctly.
  • Select crops that can withstand temperature fluctuations: Temperature fluctuations can impact plant growth, so it’s important to choose crops that can tolerate temperature changes. Crops like lettuce, kale, and herbs are suitable for vertical farming since they can thrive in cooler temperatures.

In conclusion, when choosing crops for vertical farming, consider the available space, light, temperature, and water. Choose crops that have a short growth cycle, high yields, and can grow well in hydroponic systems. By keeping these factors in mind, you can select the best crops for your vertical farm and grow healthy, nutritious produce year-round.

6: Choose the vertical farming equipment

Once you have chosen your location and crops, it’s time to select your equipment. This includes lighting, climate control systems, irrigation systems, and growing racks. When selecting equipment, consider factors such as energy efficiency, ease of use, and cost. It’s also important to ensure that the equipment you choose is suitable for the crops you plan to grow.

  • Vertical farming racks/shelves: One of the most critical pieces of equipment for vertical farming is the racks or shelves on which your plants will grow. These structures provide the support for your plants, and they should be strong enough to hold the weight of your plants and their growing media. You can use various materials such as metal, plastic, or wood for these shelves. It is also essential to ensure that the shelves are adjustable, so you can easily change the distance between them as your plants grow.
  • Grow lights: Another essential piece of equipment for vertical farming is the grow lights. Since vertical farming relies on artificial light, it’s important to choose the right type of lights that will provide your plants with the right spectrum of light for optimal growth. LED grow lights are a popular choice because they are energy-efficient and can emit the right wavelengths for plant growth.
  • Hydroponic systems: Hydroponic systems are an integral part of vertical farming equipment, as they allow you to grow crops without soil. Instead, hydroponic systems use nutrient-rich water to feed the plants, which can help increase crop yields and reduce water usage. There are various types of hydroponic systems you can use, including deep water culture, aeroponics, and nutrient film technique.

See all types of vertical farming systems:

  • Environmental control system: Maintaining the right environment is crucial for successful vertical farming. An environmental control system can help you regulate the temperature, humidity, and CO2 levels in your grow space, providing your plants with the best growing conditions. This equipment can include fans, heaters, air conditioning units, and carbon dioxide regulators.
  • Watering and nutrient delivery systems: In a vertical farm, it is crucial to have an efficient and automated watering and nutrient delivery system. These systems can help you deliver the right amount of water and nutrients to your plants, which can increase crop yields and reduce water wastage. You can use drip irrigation, ebb and flow systems, or aeroponic misting systems for this purpose.
  • Plant monitoring system: A plant monitoring system can help you keep track of your plant’s growth and health. These systems can measure parameters like pH, temperature, humidity, and nutrient levels, providing you with real-time data that can help you make informed decisions about your crop management.

Ultimately, the best vertical farming system for indoor cultivation depends on your individual needs and preferences. Consider the factors mentioned above and do some research to find the system that works best for you. 

7: Time to calculate the costs


While vertical farming offers many advantages, there are also costs associated with setting up and running a vertical farm. These costs can be divided into two categories: setup costs and operational costs.

  • Setup costs: The setup costs of a vertical farm include the cost of the building or greenhouse, lighting, climate control, irrigation, and growing systems. The cost of setting up a vertical farm can range from a few hundred thousand dollars to several million dollars, depending on the size of the farm and the equipment used.
  • Operational costs: The operational costs of a vertical farm include the cost of electricity, water, nutrients, labor, and maintenance. Electricity costs can be a significant expense, as lighting and climate control systems require a lot of energy. Water and nutrient costs are also significant, as the plants require a constant supply of water and nutrients to grow. Labor costs can also be high, as the plants need to be monitored and maintained regularly.

8: Secure funding

As you may have gathered, vertical farming requires a significant upfront investment in technology, equipment and infrastructure. Once solved, these questions will help you determine the size and type of vertical farm you need, as well as the equipment and supplies needed. 

A variety of financing options are available, including loans, grants and crowdfunding:

  • Grants: Subsidies for vertical farming may vary by country and region. However, there are some international organizations that provide grants and funding for projects related to sustainable agriculture, including vertical farming.
    One such organization is the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), which provides grants and loans to sustainable agricultural projects in developing countries. There are also non-profit organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation that provide funding for agricultural innovation projects.
    In addition, some local and national governments also offer grants and incentive programs to encourage the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices, including vertical farming. It is important to research and be aware of the funding options available in your area to determine which grant programs may be applicable for your vertical farming project.
  • Crowdfunding: Crowdfunding is an increasingly popular way of raising funds for startups. You can create a campaign on crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter, Indiegogo, or GoFundMe to raise funds for your vertical farm project. These platforms allow you to reach a large audience and showcase your project to potential investors. You can offer rewards or equity to your backers in return for their support.
  • Venture capital: Venture capitalists are investors who provide funding to startups in exchange for equity. If you have a strong business plan and a unique value proposition, you can pitch your project to venture capitalists. They can provide you with the necessary funding to start and scale your vertical farm project.
  • Bank loans: You can also consider getting a bank loan to finance your vertical farm project. You will need to provide a detailed business plan and financial projections to the bank. If your plan is feasible and profitable, you can secure a loan to start your project.
  • Angel investors: Angel investors are individuals who provide funding to startups in exchange for equity. They can be a good source of funding for your vertical farming project. You can pitch your project to angel investors and offer them equity in return for their support.

In conclusion, starting a vertical farm can be a challenging but rewarding venture. Securing funding is an important step in making your project a reality. Consider these options and choose the one that works best for your project. 

If all this overwhelms you, don’t worry, we are here to help you and guide you through the vertical farming process.

9: Set up your farm

With your location, crops, and equipment selected, it’s time to set up your farm. This includes installing lighting and climate control systems, setting up irrigation, and assembling growing racks. It’s important to follow manufacturer instructions carefully and to ensure that all equipment is properly installed and functioning before you start growing.

Once all of the above is resolved, you will need to follow the next steps:

Steps after setting up your vertical farm

1: Monitor plant growth 

To monitor plant growth in a vertical farm, several factors need to be considered:

  • First, it’s essential to track the amount and quality of light the plants receive. Plants require different amounts of light at various stages of growth, and ensuring they receive the appropriate amount is critical to their development. Sensors can be used to monitor light levels, and adjustments can be made to the lighting system as needed.
  • Second, monitoring the temperature and humidity levels within the vertical farm is crucial. Different crops have varying temperature and humidity requirements, so it’s vital to maintain optimal levels to promote growth and prevent disease. Automated sensors can help to regulate temperature and humidity levels, and alerts can be sent to farmers if they fall outside the desired range.
  • Third, monitoring nutrient levels is also critical in vertical farming. Plants rely on a specific balance of nutrients to thrive, and closely monitoring the nutrient levels in the growing medium can help farmers adjust the system accordingly. pH sensors can be used to monitor nutrient levels, and adjustments can be made as needed to ensure optimal growth.
  • Finally, monitoring plant growth in a vertical farm involves regular visual inspections. Farmers should inspect the plants for signs of disease or nutrient deficiencies and make any necessary adjustments to the growing conditions. Regular pruning and harvesting also play a vital role in promoting plant growth and maximizing yield.

In conclusion, monitoring plant growth in a vertical farm requires careful attention to lighting, temperature, humidity, nutrient levels, and visual inspections. By closely monitoring these factors, farmers can create the ideal growing conditions for each crop, promoting healthy growth and maximizing yield.

2: Harvest and sell your produce

Selling your vertical farming products can be a rewarding experience, but it can also be a daunting task if you’re not sure where to start. Here are a few tips to help you get started and be successful in selling your products:

  • Identify the target audience: This task has already been done before, but we must be clear about this point at the moment of communicating and offering our services or products.
  • Develop a marketing strategy: You’ll need to create a marketing plan to help promote your vertical farming products. This could include advertising on social media, creating a website or blog, participating in farmer’s markets or trade shows, or collaborating with influencers in your niche.
  • Focus on quality: Your products need to stand out from the competition. Ensure that your vertical farming products are of high quality and consistently meet customer expectations. This can help build a positive reputation for your business and increase customer loyalty.
  • Consider pricing: Determine the appropriate pricing for your products, taking into account the cost of production, marketing, and shipping. Ensure that your pricing is competitive and reflects the value that your vertical farming products offer.
  • Build relationships with customers: Customer relationships are key to building a successful business. Respond promptly to customer inquiries, provide excellent customer service, and consider offering loyalty programs or discounts to repeat customers.
  • Use feedback to improve: Listen to your customers’ feedback and use it to improve your products and services. Consider conducting surveys or asking for feedback through social media or email to gather insights on how to improve your vertical farming products and customer experience.

By following these tips, you’ll be well on your way to successfully selling your vertical farming products. Remember to stay patient and persistent, and always be willing to adapt and improve as you go. 

3: Analyze your data

It’s important to keep track of your crop yields, expenses, and revenues. By analyzing this data, you can identify areas for improvement and optimize your production processes.

Interpret and visualize your results: Once you have analyzed your data, you need to interpret and visualize your results. What patterns or trends do you see in your data? What are the key drivers of your crop yield or system performance? You can use graphs, charts, and tables to visualize your data and communicate your findings to others.

4: Continuously improve

Vertical farming is a dynamic industry that’s constantly evolving. To stay competitive and successful, you’ll need to stay up to date with the latest trends, technologies, and best practices.

Reminders for success

Starting a vertical farm can be a challenging but rewarding endeavor. Here are some tips to help you succeed:

  • Start small: If you’re new to vertical farming, start with a small-scale operation to learn the basics before expanding.
  • Choose the right crops: Select crops that are well-suited to your location, equipment, and market demand.
  • Invest in quality equipment: High-quality equipment will help you achieve better yields and reduce maintenance costs in the long run.
  • Stay up-to-date on best practices: Keep up with the latest research and best practices in vertical farming to ensure you’re using the most effective techniques.
  • Build a strong network: Join industry associations and connect with other vertical farmers to share knowledge and experiences.
  • Continuously improve: Finally, you need to continuously improve your vertical farming operation to increase efficiency and profitability. This may include experimenting with new growing techniques, upgrading your equipment, and finding ways to reduce your operating costs.


Starting a vertical farm is an exciting and sustainable way to produce fresh and healthy food. By following these essential steps and tips, you can start your own successful vertical farm and contribute to a more sustainable future. Good luck and happy growing!

If all this overwhelms you, don’t worry, we are here to help you and guide you through the vertical farming process.


Do I need any special skills or training to start a vertical farm?

While it’s helpful to have some knowledge of plant biology and agriculture, you don’t necessarily need any special skills or training to start a vertical farm. However, it’s important to do your research and learn as much as you can about the equipment and techniques involved in vertical farming before getting started.

Is vertical farming sustainable?

Yes, vertical farming is a sustainable method of food production that uses less water and reduces the need for long-distance transportation. It can also reduce the use of pesticides and produce consistent quality crops.

Can vertical farming be done at home?

Yes, vertical farming can be done at home on a small scale. However, it’s important to ensure that the location and equipment are suitable for the crops you plan to grow.

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